Thursday, 28 April 2016

All about Vitamins and their Deficiency Diseases

Vitamin A (Retinol) :
Sources : Dairy products, eggs, liver, fish ans butter. Can be converted by the body from the beta-carotene found in green vegetables, carrots and liver.

Deficiency : The deficiency of vitamin leads to skin changes and to night blindness or failure of dark adaptation due to the effects of deficiency on retina.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) :
Sources: Yeast, egg yolk, liver, wheatgerm, nuts, red meat and cereals.

Deficiency: Fatigue, irritability, loss of appetite; severe deficiency can lead to beri-beri.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin):
Sources: Dairy products, liver, vegetables, eggs, cereals, fruit, yeast.

Deficiency : Painful tongue and fissures to the corners of the mouth, chapped lips.

Vitamin B3 (Nicotinic acid or Niacin) :
Sources: Lean meats, peanuts and other legumes, and whole-grain or enriched bread and cereal products are among the best sources of niacin.

Deficiency: The deficiency state in humans causes skin disease, diarrhea, dementia, and ultimately death.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid):
Sources: liver, kidney, eggs, poultry, and whole grains and dairy products while apart from that it is present in perhaps all animal and plant tissues, as well as in many microorganisms.

Deficiency: There is no known naturally occurring deficiency state.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine):
Sources: liver and other organ meats, corn, whole-grain cereal, seeds and soy products.

Deficiency: can result in central nervous system disturbances e.g. convulsions in infants, More generally the effects of deficiency include inadequate growth or weight loss and anemia due to the role of B6 in the manufacture of hemoglobin.

Vitamin B7 (Biotin):
Sources: fruits and meats, egg yolk, kidney, liver, tomatoes, and yeast.

Deficiency: No deficiency yet is known associated with this vitamin.

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid):
Sources: green leafy vegetables, fruits like apples and oranges dried beans, avocados, sunflower seeds, and wheat germ.
Deficiency: Its Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin):
Sources: Liver, red meat, dairy products and fish.

Deficiency: megaloblastic anaemia.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid):
Sources: Green vegetables and fruit.

Deficiency: Scurvy.

Vitamin D (Calciferol):
Sources: Fish liver oils, dairy produce. Vitamin D is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight

Deficiency: Rickets.

Vitamin E (Tocopherol):
Sources: Pure vegetable oils, wheatgerm, wholemeal bread and cereals, egg yoke, nuts sunflower seeds.

Deficiency: May cause muscular dystrophy

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone or Naphthoquinone):
Sources: Green vegetables.

Deficiency: vitamin K deficiency results in impaired blood clotting, usually demonstrated by tests that measure clotting time. Symptoms include easy bruising and bleeding diathesis. In infants, vitamin K deficiency may result in intracranial hemorrhage.

Notes about Vitamins (Part-I)

Share this